Various sensors are used to sense the environment of self-driving cars, like human eyes, the basic components of self-driving cars;
There are five main types of sensors for autonomous vehicles, including: 1. Long range RADAR; 2. Camera; 3. LIDAR; 4. Short / Medium range RADAR; 5. Ultrasound;
These different sensors are mainly used for different distances and different types of object perception, to determine the surrounding environment for autonomous vehicles, and provide the most important source of information. In addition, there is also a source of information for environment awareness that is the source of vehicle-road collaboration. There are also parameters in the point report.
Tesla Car Various sensors
The selection of sensors is mainly based on the following technical factors:
1. Scan the range to determine the time when it must react to the object being sensed;
2. Resolution to determine the environmental details that the sensor can provide for autonomous vehicles;
3. Field of view or angle resolution, determine the number of sensors needed to cover and perceive the area;
4. Refresh rate, determine the frequency of information update from the sensor;
5. Perceive the number of objects, be able to distinguish between the number of static objects and the number of dynamic objects in 3D, and determine the number of objects that need to be tracked;
6. Reliability and accuracy, the overall reliability and accuracy of the sensor in different environments;
7. Cost, size and software compatibility, which is one of the technical conditions for mass production;
8. The amount of data generated, which determines the amount of calculation of the on-board computing unit. Now the sensor is biased towards smart sensors, that is, not only perception, but also distinguishing information, and transmitting the most important data that affects the driving of the vehicle to the on-board computing unit To reduce its computational load;
The following is a schematic diagram of the sensor solutions of Waymo, Volvo-Uber and Tesla:
Because the sensor has been exposed to the environment all the time, it is susceptible to environmental pollution, which affects the working efficiency of the sensor. Therefore, the sensor needs to be cleaned.
1. The Tesla sensor has a heating function, which can resist frost and mist;
2. Volvo’s sensor is equipped with a water spray cleaning system for cleaning dust;
3. The sensors of Chrysler Pacifica used by Waymo include water spray system and wiper.